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Free books. Read books, e asfia rumahnya. Bisa 2; tafseer, Dehlvi. And However at the macro-level, the direction of semantic change is often predictable, not only within a language but also cross-linguistically.
All the above mentioned aspects of semantic change are discussed briefly by a number of scholars. Extensive work has been done on the change in meanings of different words of different languages. He has used a corpus of 2. In the same way, Akimoto discusses the contention among the verbs of wanting wish, desire, want and hope from Middle English to present-day English.
The findings of his research show that the functional and semantic expansion and reduction of these verbs over time leads to the reshuffling of system of these verbs of wanting. All the above mentioned studies lead to the fact that all languages in the world change over time. Like other languages, Urdu has also changed with the passage of time.
This research paper aims to find out the dimension of semantic change in Urdu, discussing how the linguistic expressions change their meanings over time. The researchers observed that Urdu speakers are using lexis in different senses from the meanings given in dictionaries.
The researchers aim to explore the nature of this change. Methodology 2. We collected a corpus of 25 million words of Urdu from newspapers, books and articles penned by Pakistani writers. The corpus was then tagged and annotated with the help of software. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education www. We used questionnaire for collecting data because it is one of the most important research tools for data collection Dornyei, For this purpose a sample of 80 students 40 males and 40 females and 70 teachers 20 male, 20 female general teachers and 15 male, 15 female Urdu teachers from Faisalabad has been randomly selected.
The first part of the questionnaire is used to bring out personal information from the participants.
The reason for selecting college students and teachers is that our target population is the educated users of Urdu and the teachers are believed to have expertise in their field. Gender, status and work experience of the respondents were also taken into account.
The meanings have been arranged into semantic categories and analyzed qualitatively. The use of this word has been studied in various contexts to see in which sense this word is being used by the Urdu writers.
The results obtained from the questionnaire have been analyzed on SPSS Gender, teacher and student status and their work experience based differences have also been studied by cross tabulation. Results The results of the study illustrate a clear picture of semantic change in Urdu language.
But on the basis of corpus based study, opposite use of its meaning has been observed. The corpus was collected from literary books, newspapers, and articles. The corpus provides examples of language as used by the professional authors and checked over by editors. Thus their linguistic usage gains sufficient authenticity.
The results of the questionnaire show that almost all the respondents agree that languages tend to change over time.
The data shows that These results are summarized in Table 1. Having determined that change in language is a natural phenomenon, the next issue is attribution of authority to decide the correct meanings of a word in a language. The results of our data depict that the user of a language has the authority to decide the correct meanings in language instead of the grammarian, lexicographer or the ISSN E-ISSN www.
As The results of this question are given in Table 3. Only 8. They do not consider both the uses as interchangeable Table 6. No gender-based variation has been observed in this regard.
Discussion Languages change with the passage of time as they are dynamic in nature. Urdu language has also undergone changes over time in its pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar as well as meanings. This research paper has come up with the argumentation that the meanings of words in Urdu have changed overtime. The results obtained from the dictionaries depict that the Urdu dictionaries are intuition based as they insist on providing traditional meaning of the word which is different from the current usage.
This study suggests that the dictionaries should be corpus based so that the current use of forms in language can be codified. But the dictionary is providing opposite use of this word. The lexicographers should compile dictionaries based on corpus data and should not rely only on unscientific conjecture based means. The analysis of the collected data and the results of questionnaire also substantiate the semantic change in Urdu language.
Most of the respondents have accepted the dynamic nature of languages and agree that Urdu language has also changed. But the findings of our research do not confirm these assumptions. Pakistani Urdu users including the students, general teachers and the Urdu teachers argue that it is not the grammarians, lexicographers or the teachers who decides correct forms in a language but the users of a language have this authority.
They can use any new or alternative lexical item or form in a language and it will be acceptable as part of a language because each language survives on the basis of its usage.
This research paper proposes to empower the users by recommending that teachers should accept this dynamic nature of languages and teach the new and current forms and structures to the learners.
They should not compel students to consult dictionaries for each form and should not mark the current forms in language from students as incorrect. So, the correct usage of a form in language is not determined by dictionaries only. The forms used by the speakers of language must also be taken into account while determining the correct usage of a word. This study provides only one example of change of meaning in Urdu.
There are several changes not only in the semantic field but also in the phonological and syntactic aspects of Urdu, which have undergone changes with the passage of time. Extensive work needs to be done on all these aspects of Urdu language. Conclusion The findings of our research illustrate that Urdu language has gone through change over time like French, English, Japanese and Sanskrit languages.
This paper confirms the semantic change in Urdu with the passage of time. This research paper argues that users of a language have the authority to determine the correct forms in a language and the lexicographers, grammarians and the teachers are not sole authorities in this regard.
The Urdu speakers claim that the users of a language can bring changes in a language proving that the change in meaning from speakers is acceptable in language. This study also recommends the use of corpus for writing Urdu dictionaries.
References Akimoto, M. Rivalry among the verbs of wanting. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Auroux, S. History of language sciences. Walter De Gruyter. Biscetti, S. The diachronic development of the intensifier "bloody": A case study in historical pragmatics.
Campbell, L. Historical linguistics: an introduction 2nd ed. Edinburgh University Press. Dehlvi, M. Dornyei, Z.