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Cibo Criminale Pdf

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Romina Tsakiri Romina N. Tsakiri Forced population shifts in Crete under Venetian rule 13thth cent. Many of the instigators of rebellions or riots and outlaw leaders, the perpetrators of heinous crimes and fugitives were exiled from their homelands, the major cities of Crete and their regions, the whole island or even from the state of Venice. Similarly, the Venetians displaced many convicts to specific parts of the island, as a means of controlling people who were likely to cause upheaval and criminal acts on the island, with the relative isolation that the relocation offered. Furthermore, the demolition of villages, evacuation and devastation, mainly in mountainous and inaccessible areas, were adopted by the Venetians over the centuries in order to deal with rebellions and riots. This practice also worked as a means of suppressing insubordination and as a measure for dealing with the action in these areas of groups of bandits and outlaws, whose delinquent activity was directed against both the authorities and the local people. The places of residence of the outlaws and their relatives, their hideouts, but also neighbouring hamlets whose residents aided them, became the recipients of the wrath and punishing attitude of the Venetians. Similar methods of shifting populations and devastating areas, as well as resettling them with populations that can be controlled, are timeless standard mechanisms of imposing authority. In this paper an attempt is made at an overall review of this policy in the centuries of Venetian rule in Crete. Particularly interesting is the monitoring and study of the geography of the regions with problems and tendencies of delinquency that have characterised these areas until today, due to their isolation and inaccessibility, which consequently makes them difficult to control. Finally, we examine the areas of isolation and displacement of people whom the Venetians regarded as dangerous for the security and stability of the state, as well as for the protection and quiet living of the rest of the population of the island. Keywords: Crete under Venetian rule, violence, deviance, social control, exiles and fugitives banditi , henchmen bravi , population shifts, displacement, relocation, devastation of places, punishment, Sfakians, petitions for pardon Immigration and refugee flows, persecutions and relocations, exchange of populations, minglings: violent or milder, population shifts are noted throughout history. Sometimes they are deliberate but necessary, to secure food and survival; on other occasions they take place after violent invasions, occupations or wars.

In , ten years after her conviction, the aforementioned Elena, now in her eighties, begged for bread in her place of isolation.


Her relatives petitioned for pardon to the authorities of Crete, stating that her exile had contributed to the break-up of her family and the neglect of her personal affairs. Most of the petitions for pardon are just as dramatic. The convicts, away from their families for 12, 15 or 20 years, confess to having squandered the best part of their fortune during their exile.

This money should have been invested in feeding and sustaining their families, which often comprised many members. The petitions also refer to their miserable and abandoned children, to the detriment and break-up of their families, as they had ceased their professional activity.

For example, when it comes to exiles from Candia and its region up to 15 or 20 miles away, they were usually allowed to live and work in the district of Temenos Tsakiri Another aspect of the violent transfer of populations was the razing of villages to the ground, the evacuation and devastation of mainly mountainous and inaccessible places, which was regularly used by the Venetians over the centuries to cope with rebellions and riots.

This practice also functioned as a measure of suppressing insubordination and countering the activity of robbing and outlaw gangs, whose delinquent activity was directed against both the authorities and the local population mainly through stealing animals and looting.

The abodes of the outlaws and their relatives, their hideouts but also neighbouring hamlets whose inhabitants aided them, became the recipients of the wrath and punishing attitude of the Venetians. These places were initially devastated and their population was persecuted, and therefore scattered, or transferred elsewhere, to villages away from each other or to controllable areas, close to the administrative centres Tsakiri a, After an agreement and truce with the authorities, the displaced population returned to some of these places Xanthoudides , ; on most occasions, however, resettlement was not possible.

Some of the devastated areas were later granted as feudal land or plots of land to people who would contribute to their development.

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I will mention the case of the plateau of Lasithion, an inaccessible mountainous area in eastern Crete, far from Candia: the haven and starting point of rebels in almost all rebellions of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, it was completely destroyed by the Venetians. The authorities prohibited building, cultivating the land and breeding animals there, while the population was displaced. In addition to a statement of repentance for their previous offences, they were obliged to appear before the authorities of the town every six months as guarantors for the members of their extended family.

In case of living away from their place of residence, they were obliged to draw up a certificate with the priest of their village which they were to carry with them, or else the authorities would turn against them Tsakiri a, Their relatives were isolated in just the same way or were taken hostage, until the fulfillment of their pledges or obligations arising from their agreements with the Venetians.

For example, in a relevant agreement of the early 17th century, several heads of families leave sons and brothers as hostages until they deliver what they have agreed on with the authorities, namely the arrest of criminal members of their extended family and their turning over to the Venetians.

In this way they prove their obedience practically Tsakiri a, For more details see my paper on Lasithi forthcoming.

Many died in the galleys during a long and painful journey under inhuman conditions and various hardships Viaro ; Idem ; Tsakiri , Venice tried to maintain its sovereignty through the persecution of people and groups as well as the violent or voluntary shifts and relocations of the population. Similar regulatory methods of removing populations and devastating places and then resettling them with populations that were easy to control are pinpointed early on in history.

Over time, they are standard practices of imposing authority, a measure of prevention and suppression. And it is not only the shift but also its prohibition that is adopted as a means of control. For example, the Venetian authorities imposed house arrest and movement restrictions on people who had been involved in conflicts Tsakiri , , It is very interesting to study the geography of the areas that were devastated and whose population was persecuted.

These areas were hotbeds of turmoil against the Venetians throughout the period of their rule over the island, due to the isolation and inaccessibility and therefore the difficulty of controlling these places. These areas were actually also associated with problems and tendencies of delinquency later on, while many of these places have continued troubling the authorities until the present day.

Researching the structure of the gangs of outlaws and a portrayal of their leaders is also particularly important Astrinaki ; Tsandiropoulos ; Tsakiri a.

To sum up, I would like to point out that the archive material, mainly from the latter centuries of Venetian rule over the island, suggests that a significant part of the population is constantly on the move although it is not easy for anyone to provide a specific number. Fugitives, exiles and other outlaws, robbers and henchmen, criminals and abominable murderers go to extremes, moving on the margin literally and metaphorically of Cretan and Venetian society and territory.

The state authority imposes or incites their expatriation and relocation as a means of pressure. In a vicious circle, the violence of the one part reinforces the violence of the other, resulting in more people being wanted and persecuted or in the unsolicited shift of those who choose often unable to do otherwise to lead their life fleeing from justice as a means of escaping punishment.

Serge Bernstein — Pierre Milza ed. Lowe ed. Fernard Braudel ed. Nicholas S.

Cibo criminale (eNewton Saggistica) PDF Book - Mediafile Sharing

Banditi, Banditismo e repressione di giustizia negli stati europei di antico regime, Roma, Jouvence, Eric R. Dursteler , Venetians in Constantinople.

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